Introduction to the Spanish Civil War

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SCW Chronology

  • 1936.
    • July
      • Planned Worker's Olympiad in Barcelona
      • Rising begins in Morocco.
      • Army of Africa airlifted to mainland.
      • Germany & Italy promise aid to Rebels.
      • Declaration of French neutrality
    • August
      • Badajoz massacre.
      • Assassination of Federico Garci­a Lorca.
      • British and French arms embargo.
      • Italy, Germany and Russia accept the principle of non-intervention
    • September
      • Rebels capture Irun, San Sebastian and Toledo.
      • New Republican government under Largo Caballero.
      • Recruiting of International Brigades begins.
      • First non-intervention committee meeting in London.
      • Francisco Franco becomes head of Nationalist Army
    • October
      • Franco becomes Head of State.
      • Italians arrive in Ibiza; Soviet Union promises aid to Republican government.
    • November
      • First International Brigades arrive.
      • Battle of Madrid begins.
      • Anarchist leader Buenaventura Durruti killed in Madrid
      • Republican government moves to Valencia and leaves defence of capital to General Miaja's military junta.
      • Germany and Italy recognise Franco's government.
      • Arrival in Spain of German Condor Legion
      • Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera shot by Republicans
    • December
      • Madrid held by Republicans.
      • Arrival of 3000 Italian Blackshirts and 20 000 Italian regulars.
  • 1937
    • January
      • Anglo-Italian agreement signed.
    • February
      • Italians capture Malaga.
      • Republicans hold Rebel offensive at Jarama.
      • Britain & France ban volunteers to Spain.
      • Ernest Hemingway arrives in Spain
    • March
      • Italians defeated at Guadalajara.
      • Nationalist Basque offensive.
    • April
      • Bombing of Guernica.
      • Beginning of naval control scheme to limit foreign intervention.
    • May
      • Civil war in Barcelona.
      • Juan Negrín replaces Largo Caballero as Prime Minister.
      • Germany and Italy leave the control scheme after sinking of Deutschland battleship by Republican aeroplanes.
      • Sinking of Ciudad de Barcelona
      • Neville Chamberlain replaces Baldwin as British Prime Minister
      • The Volunteer for Liberty, the newspaper for English speaking members of the International Brigades, appears
    • June
      • Mola killed in air crash. Nationalists capture Bilbao.
      • Banning of the POUM.
    • July
      • Battle of Brunete.
      • Republican attack west of Madrid contained.
      • Langston Hughes arrives in Spain for 6 month visit of Republican Spain
    • August
      • Republican Aragon offensive.
      • Nationalists capture Santander.
    • September
      • Increasing sinkings of merchant shipping by 'unidentified pirates' (Italian submarines).
      • Republican Aragon attack stalls.
      • Nyon conference and instigation of naval patrols to limit attacks on international shipping.
    • October
      • Nationalists capture all Northern Spain.
      • Franklin D. Roosevelt's 'quarantine speech'.
    • November
      • Republican government moves to Barcelona
    • December
      • Republican offensive against Teruel.
      • Formation of Jewish 'Botwin Company'.
  • 1938
    • January
      • Republicans capture Teruel.
      • Bombing of Barcelona.
      • Paul Robeson visits the International Brigades in Spain
    • February
      • Nationalists recapture Teruel.
    • March
      • Nationalist Aragon offensive.
      • German anschluss of Austria.
      • France re-opens frontier with Spain.
    • April
      • Nationalists reach the Mediterranean.
    • May
      • Leon Blum replaced by Daladier as French Prime Minister.
      • French frontier with Spain closed.
      • Vatican recognizes Franco's government
    • June
      • Nationalists capture Castellon.
      • Republicans successfully defend Valencia.
    • July
      • Battle of the Ebro.
      • Non-intervention plan for withdrawal of foreigners from Spain.
    • August
      • Nationalists hold Ebro offensive.
    • September
      • International Brigades withdrawn from active service.
      • Munich agreement ends hopes of intervention for the Republicans
    • October
    • November
      • Republicans retreat across the Ebro.
      • International Brigades begin to leave Spain.
      • Reichkristallnacht in Germany.
  • 1939
    • January
      • Nationalists capture Barcelona.
    • February
      • Nationalists take Catalonia.
      • Negra­n attempts to negotiate peace.
      • Britain and France recognise Franco's government.
    • March
      • Casado coup against Negra­n Govt.
      • Franco enters Madrid.
      • German troops enter Prague.
    • April
      • Franco announces the end of the war.